Different causes can lead to dementia. Vascular dementia can occur if the brain has undergone multiple strokes. Also, some degenerative neurological diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and certain types of multiple sclerosis can cause dementia. In addition, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some central nervous system infections, such as meningitis (inflammation of brain membrane), can trigger the development of dementia.
Other causes include traumatic injury to the brain caused by falls or motor vehicle accidents, excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs, depression, a family history of dementia and ageing. Some diseases that increase the risk of dementia include diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Also, the build-up of excess fluid in the brain due to infections or tumours can promote the development of dementia.